JAMB Syllabus For Agricultural Science 2023/2024: The aim of the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination syllabus in Agriculture is to prepare the candidates for the Board’s examination. It is designed to test their achievement of the course objectives, which are to:

  1. stimulate and sustain their interest in Agriculture;
  2. acquire basic knowledge and practical skills in Agriculture;
  3. acquire the knowledge of interpretation and the use of data;
  4. stimulate their ability to make deductions using the acquired knowledge in Agriculture.

The syllabus is divided into five sections as given below:

  1. General Agriculture
  2. Agronomy
  3. Animal Production
  4. Agricultural Economics and Extension
  5. Agricultural Technology

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SECTION A: General Agriculture (JAMB Syllabus For Agricultural Science 2023/2024)
TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTESOBJECTIVES:Candidates should be able to:
1. Meaning and Scope of Agriculture
a. Definition of Agriculture
b. Branches of Agriculture
c. Types of Agriculture i.e subsistence and commercial
(i) use the definition of Agriculture in modern terms as it relates to production, processing and marketing.
(ii) differentiate between the various branches of Agriculture.
(iii) differentiate between the various types of Agriculture.
2. Importance of Agriculture
i. Provision of raw materials for agro allied industries
ii. Provision of employment
iii. Development of rural areas, etc.
(i) relate agro-allied industries to their respective raw materials
(ii) relate the various contributions of Agriculture to economic development in West Africa.
3. Agricultural Ecology
a. Ecological zones of West Africa
b. Agricultural products of each ecological zone
c. Environmental factors and their effects on crop and livestock production
(i) differentiate between the features of the ecological zones in West Africa
(ii) classify agricultural products according to each ecological zone.
(iii) differentiate abiotic from biotic factors affecting agricultural production.
4. Genetics
a. First and second laws of Mendel
b. Cell division
c. Terminologies e.g. locus, alleles, genotype, dominance
(i) apply the first and second laws of Mendel to genetics.
(ii) differentiate between the types of cell division.
(iii) determine the outcome of genetic crossing involving homozygous and heterozygous traits.
(iv) compute simple probability ratios.
5. Farm Inputs e.g. planting materials, agrochemicals, etc.(i) classify different types of farm inputs and their uses.
6. History of Agricultural Development in West Africa
a. Agricultural systems e.g. shifting cultivation, bush fallowing, etc.
b. Problems of Agricultural development e.g. land tenure systems, inadequate infrastructures, finance for agriculture, pollution, etc.
c. Establishment of national research institutes e.g. NCRI, IAR, IAR&T, CRIN, NIFOR, FRIN, RRI, NRCRI, NIHORT, LCRI, etc. and international research institutes e.g. IITA, ILRI, ICRISAT, WARDA, etc., leading to increased application of science to the development of agriculture.
d. Agricultural Development Projects (ADPs) e.g. RTEP, FADAMA etc.
e. National agricultural programmes such as OFN, NAFPP, NALDA, Green Revolution, NCRPs, NARP, Project Coordinating Unit (PCU) etc.
(i) compare various agricultural systems. – identify the problems and proffer solutions trace the history of research institutes from past to present.
(ii) assess their role in the development of agriculture.
(iii) give reasons for the establishment of ADPs.
(iv) evaluate the contributions of national agricultural programmes.
7. Roles of Government and NGOs in Agricultural Development
a. Development of fiscal policies favourable to agricultural production e.g. import duties, ban on importation, e.t.c.
b. Agricultural laws and reforms e.g Land Use Act.
c. Government programmes aimed at agricultural development e.g. subsidies, credit facilities, e.t.c.
d. Provision of infrastructures e.g. transport systems, communication systems, e.t.c. e. Contribution of NGOs to agricultural development
i. evaluate the effects of government policies on agricultural development.
ii. identify agricultural laws and their effect on agricultural production
iii. identify the various agricultural incentives provided by the government.
iv assess their effects on agricultural development
v. compare the various infrastructural facilities provided by government and their uses.
examine the roles of NGOs in the development of agriculture.
JAMB Syllabus For Agricultural Science 2023/2024

SECTION B: Agronomy (JAMB Syllabus For Agricultural Science 2023/2024)

TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTESOBJECTIVES: Candidates should be able to:
1. Rocks and Soil formation
a. Factors affecting rock weathering and soil formation b. Physical properties of soil
i. Soil profile
ii. Soil texture and structure
c. Chemical properties of soil
i. Soil acidity and alkalinity
ii. Chemical components of soil e.g. silicate
i. identify major types and properties of rocks and soils; factors and processes of soil formation.
ii. differentiate between the horizons in a soil profile.
iii. differentiate between the components of soil.
iv. compute the proportion of soil constituents.
v. analyse soil into its constituents parts.
vi. determine the water-holding capacity of soil.
vii. determine the soil pH.
2. Soil Water and Soil Conservation
a. Soil water: its importance, sources, movement, management and conservation.
i. compare capillary, gravitational and hygroscopic water.
ii. determine water-holding capacity, wilting points and plant available/unavailable water.
b. Soil conservation: meaning and importance, causes, effects, prevention and control of leaching, erosion, continuous cropping, burning and oxidation of organic matter.
c. Irrigation and drainage methods.
i. identify the causes of erosion and leaching.
ii. determine control methods.    
iii. classify irrigation and drainage systems.
iv. examine the importance and challenges of irrigation and drainage.
3. Soil Fertility
a. Macro and micro-nutrients and their roles in plant nutrition: carbon, water and nitrogen cycles    
b. The living population of the soil (flora and fauna), and their roles in soil fertility
c. Maintenance of soil fertility: Methods of maintaining soil fertility e.g. use of cover crops, application of organic manures, etc.
d. Nutrient deficiency symptoms e.g. chlorosis, sickle leaves, stunting, apical necrosis etc.
i. classify plant nutrients.
ii. identify factors affecting their availability. examine the roles of soil flora and fauna in maintaining soil fertility.
iii. compare the different methods of maintaining soil fertility.
iv. differentiate between organic and inorganic fertilizer, and their methods of application.
v. determine common fertilizer ratios.
vi. identify the deficiency symptoms and their causes. vii. suggest remedies.
4. Land Preparation and Soil Tillage
a. Principles and practices of land preparation and soil tillage    
b. Factors affecting choice of tillage methods: Zero tillage, minimum tillage, etc.
i. compare the different methods of land preparation and soil tillage in relation to different groups of crops. ii. give reasons for the advantages and the disadvantages of land preparation and soil tillage. give reasons for the choice of tillage methods.
5. Plant Forms and Functions
a. Parts of monocot and dicot crop plants and their functions  
b. The anatomy and morphology of the storage organs of common crop plants
i. identify crop plant parts and their functions.
ii. distinguish between monocot and dicot crop plants differentiate the various storage organs of crop plants
6. Growth, Development and Reproduction
a. Gametogenesis
b. Pollination
c. Fertilization
d. Embryo formation and development
i. examine the process of gamete formation.
ii. give reasons for different types of pollination.
iii. analyse the process of fertilization.
iv. trace the process of embryo formation and development to the formation of seeds and fruits.
7. Plant Propagation Methods
a. Sexual: the use of seeds, seed viability, viability test, seed rate and seed germination    
b. Asexual (vegetative propagation) e.g. cutting, budding, grafting, layering, e.t.c.
c. Nursery and nursery management
i. classify crops propagated by sexual methods.
ii. determine seed viability and seed rate.
iii. differentiate between types of seed germination.
iv. examine the conditions for seed germination. classify crops into different vegetative propagation methods.
v. determine appropriate nursery sites, types; their advantages and disadvantages.
vi. apply the techniques of transplanting seedlings
8. Cropping Systems, Planting Patterns and Plant Densities
a. Cropping systems: Monocropping, mixed-, multiple-, inter-, relay-, stripand rotational cropping
b. Planting patterns: Broadcasting, row spacing and drilling c. Plant densities: single, double and multiple stands
i. compare cropping systems.
ii. apply different cropping systems to solve problems in agriculture. – differentiate between the various planting patterns.
iii. examine the various types of plant densities and their effects on crop yield. ii. compute plant density per hectare.
9. Crop Husbandry Common and scientific names, gross morphology, anatomy of storage organs, methods of propagation, husbandry practices, harvesting, processing and storage, common diseases and pests, economic importance of the following groups of crops.  
Group 1: Cereals e.g maize, guinea corn, rice
Group 2: Legumes e.g. cowpea,  groundnut, soyabean Group 3: Tubers e.g. yam, cassava, sweet potatoes Group 4: Vegetables and Spices e.g. tomatoes, egg plant, pepper, onions, okra, cabbage, Amaranthus sp. Group 5: Fruits e.g. citrus, pineapple, pawpaw
Group 6: Beverages e.g. cocoa, kola, coffee
Group 7: Oils e.g. oil palm, coconut, shea butter
Group 8: Latex e.g. para rubber, gum arabic
Group 9: Fibres e.g jute, cotton, sisal hemp
Group 10: Sugars e.g sugarcane, beet
i. apply the different methods of crop propagation, husbandry, harvesting, processing and storage for each crop.
ii. identify common diseases and pests and their effects on crop yield.
iii. determine the economic importance of each of the crops.
iv. relate their importance to national economic development.
10. Pasture and Forage Crops
a. Study of gross morphology, methods of propagation and husbandry of common pasture grasses and legumes. Establishment, maintenance, conservation and uses of pastures and forage crops.
b. Study of natural grasslands and their distribution in West Africa
c. Range management
i. classify common grasses and legumes used as pastures and forage
ii. differentiate between pasture and forage crops by their common and scientific names.
iii. distinguish between the various methods of conserving pastures e.g. hay- and silage making.
iv. relate different vegetational zones to their dominant pasture species. determine range types and utilization of range resources in Nigeria
11. Floriculture Identification, establishment, maintenance and uses of ornamental trees, shrubs and flowersi. distinguish between common ornamental trees, shrubs and flowers.
ii. determine their uses and maintenance
12. Weeds
a. Gross morphology, methods of reproduction, dispersal and effect of weeds
b. Weed control methods – weeding, mulching, cover cropping, tillage, herbicides and trap cropping
i. identify weeds with their common and scientific names.
ii. classify weeds according to their mode of dispersal. apply various weed control methods.
13. Crop Diseases
a. Identification of disease–causing organisms both in store and in the field.
b. A simple account of diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, nematodes and viruses; the nature of the damage, methods of transmission and common methods of control.
c. Side effects of application of preventive and control methods e.g pollution, poisoning and distribution of ecosystem.
i. distinguish between common store and field disease causing organisms.
ii. relate various disease-causing organisms to the damage caused, symptoms and their mode of spread. iii. apply appropriate control methods. relate each control method to its side effect.
14. Crop Pests
a. General account of pests of agricultural plants both in the field and in the store, their types, importance, principles and methods of prevention and control
b. Life cycles of: biting insects e.g. grasshopper; boring insects e.g. weevils; sucking insects e.g. aphids and cotton strainer.
c. Common pesticides and their side effects
i. identify the various field and store pests.
ii. assess their economic importance.
iii. relate various prevention and control methods to different pests.
iv. describe the life cycles of various insects.
v. apply the knowledge of the life cycles of insect pests to their prevention and control.
vi. differentiate between common pesticides.
vii. examine their mode of action on pests.
15. Forest Management (Silviculture)
a. Importance: Source of wood, pulp, fibre and other forest products
b. Conservation: regulation, exploitation, regeneration, afforestation, agro-forestry and taungya system
i. relate various forest products to their uses.
ii. compare different forest conservation methods.
iii. apply the various methods appropriately.
16. Crop improvement Methods of crop improvement e.g. introduction, selection, crossing, quarantine e.t.c.i. give reasons for crop improvement.
ii. distinguish between various methods of crop improvement.
JAMB Syllabus For Agricultural Science 2023/2024

SECTION C: Animal Production (JAMB Syllabus For Agricultural Science 2023/2024)

1. Forms and classification of major farm animals in West Africa
a. Species, breeds and distribution
b. External features of cattle, sheep, goat, pigs, rabbits and poultry
i. classify various breeds of farm animals.
ii. locate where they are found. identify their features.
2. General terminology in animal production Common terms used in animal husbandry, e.g. calving, kidding, castrate, capon, veal, mutton, e.t.c.i. use various terms in animal husbandry.
3. Anatomy and physiology of farm animals
a. Functions of tissues and organs of farm animals
b. Animal body systems e.g. digestive (ruminants and non-ruminants), reproductive, respiratory, urinary (excretory) and nervous systems.
c. Effect of environmental changes on physiological development of farm animals e.g climate change
i. distinguish between various functions of tissues and organs of farm animals.
ii. compare different body systems in farm animals.
iii. determine the effects of climate change on farm animals
4. Reproduction in farm animals
a. Gametogenesis, oestrus cycle, signs of heat and heat periods, secondary sexual characters, gestation periods, parturition and the role of hormones in reproduction.
b. Development, nourishment and birth of the young. Mammary glands and lactation in farm animals.
c. Egg formation, incubation and hatching in poultry.
i. give an account of the process of reproduction in farm animals.
ii. determine the role of hormones in reproduction. trace the development in farm animals from fertilization to birth and care of the young.
iitrace the process of egg formation and incubation in poultry.
5. Animal nutrition
a. Feed nutrients and functions
b. Feeds and feeding: Simple ration formulation – balanced ration, common pasture/forage crops e.g. guinea grass, elephant grass, giant star grass. Andropogon sp, Calopogonium sp. Hay and silage preparation, different types of rations, namely maintenance ration and production ration.
c. Nutrient deficiencies: Causes and symptoms of malnutrition and their correction in farm animals.
i. identify the various feed nutrients, their sources and functions.
ii. differentiate between the types of animal feeds and their formulation.
iii. relate the various types of rations to different classes of livestock.
iv. trace symptoms to nutrient deficiencies in farm animals.
v. apply appropriate corrective measures to nutrient deficiencies in farm animals.
6. Livestock management Housing, feeding, sanitation and veterinary care of ruminants, pigs, rabbits and poultry under intensive, semiintensive and extensive systems of management from birth to slaughter.i. apply the different management practices for farm animals.
7. Animal Health
a. Animal diseases (pathology)
i. Environmental factors predisposing animals to diseases; causal organisms, symptoms, transmission and effects.
ii. Preventive and curative methods for diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa.
b. Parasites (parasitology)
i. Life cycles and economic importance of livestock parasites e.g. endoparasites, ectoparasites and disease vectors.
ii. Prevention and control – dipping – spraying – deworming – sanitation
i. identify diseases of farm animals and causative agents.
ii. classify livestock diseases based on symptoms and mode of transmission.
iii. apply appropriate preventive and curative measures against diseases caused by these pathogens.  
iv. classify livestock parasites.
v. determine their role in disease transmission.
vi. trace life cycles of parasites from egg to adult stage. apply appropriate prevention and control methods against livestock parasites.
8. Fisheries and Wildlife
a. Fish culture systems; Common types of fishes e. g Tilapia, Catfish, etc.
i. Extensive systems: inland and deep sea fishing, lakes and rivers.
ii. Semi-intensive systems: dams
iii. Intensive systems: fish ponds – Factors to consider in ponds establishment and pond management e.g. pond fertilization, liming and desilting.
b. Fish harvesting and processing methods
i. Use of drag nets, hook and line, etc.
ii. Curing, sun-drying and smoking.
iii. Fishery regulations    
c. Wildlife management Habitat conservation, feeding, domestication, harvesting, processing and wildlife regulations.
i. identify the common types of fishes in West Africa. ii. differentiate between various systems of fish farming in West Africa.
iii. determine the factors to be considered in intensive fish farming.      
iv. assess the advantages and disadvantages of different fish harvesting and processing methods.
v. use the various methods of catching fish.
vi. apply the various methods of fish preservation. apply fishery regulations in Nigeria.
vii. identify animals found in West African game reserves.
viii. give reasons for the establishment of game reserves.
ix. apply common wildlife regulations.
9. Bee-keeping (Apiculture)
a. Meaning and importance of apiculture
b. Types of bees e.g exotic and indigenous bees
c. Methods of bee-keeping e.g traditional and modern bee-keeping d. Equipment and safety measures in beekeeping
i. relate bee-keeping to economic development
ii. differentiate between various types of bees
iii. classify methods of bee-keeping
iv. identify bee-keeping equipment and their uses
10. Animal Improvement Methods of animal improvement e. g. introduction, breeding, quarantine and selection: Breeding systems – inbreeding, line-breeding, cross-breeding, artificial inseminationi. give reasons for animal improvement.
ii. differentiate between the various methods of animal improvement.
JAMB Syllabus For Agricultural Science 2023/2024

SECTION D: Agriculture Economics and Extension (JAMB Syllabus For Agricultural Science 2023/2024)

1. Factors of agricultural production
a. Land
i. Types of land ownership in West Africa          
b. Labour    
c. Capital  
d. Management
i. understand the meaning of land and state its uses
ii. identify the various forms of land ownership.
iii. examine their effects of land ownership on agriculture.
iv. differentiate between the various features of land and their effects on land use.
v.differentiate between the types and sources of labour and their effects on agricultural production.
vi. compare the sources of capital and associated problems.
vii. determine the functions of a farm manager in an agricultural enterprise.
2. Basic Economic Principles
a. Demand and supply
b. Production function: Input/input, Output/output Input/output relationships; stages of production, concepts of diminishing returns, scale of preference and choice.
i. relate demand to supply in agricultural production.
ii. interpret geographical representation of demand and supply.
iii. relate input to output.
iv. deduce economic concepts from graphic representation.
3. Features of Agricultural Production Smallness of farm holdings: biological limits of farm production and susceptibility of farm production to climate, seasonality of farm productions, price elasticity in demand and supply of agricultural produce.i. distinguish between the common features of agricultural production and produce.
ii. compute elasticity of demand and supply.
4. Labour Management
a. Labour relations: Supervision, etc.
b. Types of labour: Permanent labour etc.
c. National labour laws and regulations.
i. identify the various ways of achieving labour efficiency.
ii. differentiate between the various types and sources of labour.
iii. apply national labour laws and regulations.
5. Farm Management
a. Qualities, functions and problems of a farm manager.
b. Records and record-keeping: Types and importance of record-keeping – livestock records, profit and loss account book.
c. Stock evaluation:
i. gross and net profits in farm management.
ii. Appreciation, depreciation and savage value
d. Agricultural insurance:
i. Meaning, importance and types of agricultural insurance ii. Problems of agricultural insurance
i. identify the qualities, functions and problems of a farm manager.
ii. differentiate between the types of farm records.
iii. give reasons for keeping farm records. determine gross and net margins, appreciation, depreciation and salvage value    
iv. examine the relevance of agricultural insurance
v. determine the appropriate agricultural insurance scheme determine the problems associated with agricultural insurance.
6. Marketing of Agricultural Produce
a. Importance of Marketing.
b. Marketing channels.
c. Characteristics of agricultural products affecting their marketing.
i. evaluate the importance of agricultural marketing
ii. classify marketing agents and their functions.
iii. determine the various ways in which marketing channels pose problems in agricultural production.
iv. determine the characteristics of agricultural products affecting their marketing.
7. Agricultural Extension
a. Meaning and importance.
b. The role of Agricultural Development programmes, universities, research institutes and farmers’ organizations (Cooperative societies).
c. Extension methods including demonstration plots, use of visual aids, mass media, etc.
d. Problems of agricultural extension in West Africa and possible solutions.
i. identify the importance of agricultural extension.
ii. analyse the roles of government and nongovernmental organizations in agricultural extension education.
iii. differentiate between the various extension methods.
iv. examine the problems of agricultural extension in West Africa.
v. provide possible solutions.
JAMB Syllabus For Agricultural Science 2023/2024

SECTION E: Agricultural Technology (JAMB Syllabus For Agricultural Science 2023/2024)

1. Farm surveying and farmstead planning
a. Meaning and importance
b. Common surveying equipment, their uses and care c. Common survey methods
d. Principles of farmstead outlay.
i. examine the relevance of farm surveying to agriculture.
ii. classify common surveying equipment, their uses and care.
iii. differentiate between the common survey methods.
iv. apply survey principles to farmstead outlay.
2. Simple farm toolsi. identify simple farm tools.
ii. use and maintain farm tools.
iii. compare the advantages and disadvantages of simple farm tools.
3. Farm machinery and implements
a. Types
i. Machinery e.g tractor, milking machine etc
ii. Implements
b. Uses and maintenance of farm machinery and implements
i. identify common farm machinery and implements.
ii. classify farm machinery according to their uses.
iii. apply appropriate maintenance routines on farm machines and implements.
iv. operate farm machines and implements.
4. Mechanization and sources of farm power
a. Sources of farm power e. g. animal and machines
b. Advantages and disadvantages of agricultural mechanization
c. Problems and prospects of mechanized agriculture in West Africa
i. compare the advantages and disadvantages of various sources of farm power and their application.
ii. distinguish between the advantages and disadvantages of mechanization.
iii. assess the problems and prospects of mechanized agriculture in West Africa.
5. Processing and storage
a. Processing: traditional and modern methods of food processing e.g. gari, rice and groundnut processing, etc.  
b. Storage
i. identify the importance of agricultural processing.
ii. differentiate between the various methods of processing agricultural produce.
iii. compare different storage methods.
iv. apply different storage methods.
6. Introduction to biotechnology Basic terms, e.g. tissue and anther culture in vitro fertilization and genetic engineeringi. use basic terms in biotechnology.
ii. provide reasons for the importance and application of biotechnology.
7. Application of ICT in agriculture
a. Features of computers
b. Uses of computers in agriculture: disease and weather forecasting, ration formulation, database and simulation studies, etc.
c. Use of communication gadgets e.g mobile phone, internet, etc.
i. identify the various components of a computer.
ii. use the computer to enhance agricultural practices.
iii. use communication gadgets to enhance agricultural production.
8. Introduction to agricultural research and statistics
a. Basic concepts in planning agricultural experiments e.g. hypothesis, treatment and control, etc.
b. Interpretation of results, e.g. measures of central tendency and experimental errors.
i. – use basic concepts in agricultural experiments.
ii. draw inferences from experimental results.
ii. compute simple measures of central tendency.
JAMB Syllabus For Agricultural Science 2023/2024


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